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The Use of Social Media and Technology in Diplomacy

The advent of social media and digital technology has revolutionized the field of diplomacy.

Once considered a profession rooted in tradition and strict protocol, the digital age has expanded the nature of diplomatic relations from behind closed doors to include direct communication with the public (Bjola, & Holmes, 2015). Digital diplomacy, which incorporates the use of social media and technology, has democratized information, enabling diplomats to engage with a wider audience and to maintain connections with their counterparts in real-time.

Use of Social Media in Diplomacy

The use of social media platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram, in diplomacy, often termed "Twiplomacy," provides an efficient and transparent means for nations to communicate their stance on various issues (Metzgar, 2012). Diplomats and government agencies employ social media to craft and deliver messages, shape narratives, and respond to crises in real-time. For instance, during the Arab Spring, Twitter was extensively used by diplomats and politicians to track developments, communicate with local leaders, and shape their policies (Howard et al., 2011).

Social media also fosters direct communication between political leaders and citizens, circumventing traditional media channels. An early example was the use of Twitter by then-President Barack Obama. He utilized the platform to communicate policies directly to the public, fostering a sense of approachability and transparency (Graham et al., 2013).

The Role of Technology in Diplomacy

The implementation of technology extends beyond social media. Governments are leveraging technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Virtual Reality (VR), and blockchain in diplomacy.

AI, for example, is used for data analysis and prediction. By analyzing social media trends and news reports, AI can assist in predicting political unrest or public sentiment towards certain policies (Secrieru, 2019).

VR can simulate environments for diplomatic training or to foster understanding and empathy in conflict resolution. For example, the United Nations uses VR to immerse viewers in conflict zones and refugee crises, enhancing their understanding of these issues (United Nations, 2016).

Blockchain technology, while primarily known for its financial applications, can assist in maintaining transparency and accountability in international aid (Tapscott & Tapscott, 2016). It can track and verify transactions, reducing the risk of corruption or mismanagement.

Challenges and Criticisms

Despite the promising potential of digital diplomacy, there are concerns about misinformation, cyber security, and digital divide. The openness of social media platforms can be exploited to spread fake news, propaganda, or hate speech (Bradshaw & Howard, 2019). There are also cyber security risks, including hacking and data breaches. Moreover, the digital divide, the disparity in access to technology, may exacerbate inequality in diplomatic representation and influence (Hanson, 2010).

The integration of social media and technology into diplomacy marks a significant shift in the diplomatic landscape. While the challenges are notable, the potential benefits, including increased transparency, public engagement, and efficient communication, are significant. As digital diplomacy continues to evolve, it is crucial for diplomats to adapt and leverage these tools while also addressing the associated risks.


- Bjola, C., & Holmes, M. (2015). Digital diplomacy: theory and practice. Routledge.

- Metzgar, E. (2012). Twitter diplomacy: A content analysis of U.S. Government Twitter accounts. Public Relations Review, 38(1), 147-149.

- Howard, P. N., Duffy, A., Freelon, D., Hussain, M. M., Mari, W., & Mazaid, M. (2011). Opening Closed Regimes: What Was the Role of Social Media During the Arab Spring?. Project on Information Technology and Political Islam.

- Graham, M., Hale, S. A., & Gaffney, D. (2013). Where in the world are you? Geolocation and language identification in Twitter. The Professional Geographer, 66(4), 568-578.

- Secrieru, S. (2019). How can AI facilitate diplomacy? EU Institute for Security Studies.

- United Nations. (2016). United Nations Virtual Reality. UNVR.

- Tapscott, D., & Tapscott, A. (2016). Blockchain revolution: how the technology behind bitcoin is changing money, business, and the world. Penguin.

- Bradshaw, S., & Howard, P. N. (2019). The global disinformation order: 2019 global inventory of organised social media manipulation. Working Paper No. 2019.2. Oxford, UK: Project on Computational Propaganda.

- Hanson, E. (2010). The Information Revolution and World Politics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.


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